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A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance or pressure in which participants fast as an act of political protestor to provoke the feelings of guilt in others, usually with the objective to achieve a specific goal, such as a policy change.
Most hunger strikers will take liquids but not solid food. In cases where an entity usually the state has or is able to obtain custody of the hunger striker such as a prisonerthe hunger strike is often terminated by the custodial entity through the use of force-feeding. Fasting was used as a method of protesting injustice in pre-Christian Irelandwhere it was known as Troscadh or Cealachan.
The fast was often carried out on the doorstep of the home of the offender. Scholars speculate this was due to the high importance the culture placed on hospitality. Allowing a person to die at one's doorstep, for a wrong of which one was accused, was considered a great dishonor. The fasts were primarily undertaken to recover debts or get justice for a perceived wrong. There are legends of St.
Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland, using the hunger strike as well. In Indiathe practice of a hunger protest, where the protester fasts at the door of an offending party typically a debtor in a public call for justice, was abolished by the government in ; this indicates the prevalence of the practice prior to that date, or at least a public awareness of it.
This can be known since it appears in the Ramayanawhich was composed around that time. The actual mention appears in the Ayodhya kanda the second E Generation - Zebrahead - Playmate Of The Year of the Ramayanain Sarga section Bharata has gone to ask the exiled Rama to come back and rule the kingdom. Bharata tries many arguments, none of which work, at which point he decides to engage in a hunger strike.
He announces his intention to fast, calls for his Fault - Hungerstrike - overgrown Sumantra to bring him some sacred Kusha grass which Sumantra will not do, since he is too busy looking at Rama's face, so Bharata has to get the grass himselfand lies down upon the grass in front of Rama. Rama, however, is quickly able to persuade him to abandon the attempt. Rama mentions it as a practice of the brahmanas. In the first three days, the body is still using energy from glucose.
After depleting fat, the body enters a " starvation mode". There are examples of hunger strikers dying after 46 to 73 days of strike, for example the Irish hunger strike.
In the early 20th century suffragettes frequently endured hunger strikes in British prisons. Marion Fault - Hungerstrike - overgrown was the first in She was released, as the authorities did not want her to become a martyr. Other suffragettes in prison also undertook hunger strikes. The prison authorities subjected them to force-feedingwhich the suffragettes categorized as a form of torture.
Emmeline Pankhurst 's sister Mary Clarke died shortly after being force-fed in prison, and others including Lady Constance Bulwer-Lytton are believed to have had serious health problems caused by force feeding, dying of a heart attack not long after.
Hunger strikes were tolerated but prisoners were released when they became sick. When they had recovered, the suffragettes were taken back to prison to finish their sentences. About women received medals for hunger striking or enduring force-feeding. Like their British counterparts, American suffragettes also used this method of political protest. A few years Fault - Hungerstrike - overgrown to the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitutiona group of American suffragettes led by Alice Paul engaged in a hunger strike and endured forced feedings while incarcerated at the Occoquan Workhouse in Virginia.
Hunger strikes have deep roots in Irish society and in the Irish psyche. Fasting in order to bring attention to an injustice which one felt under his lord, and thus shame him, was a common feature of early Irish society and this tactic was fully incorporated into the Brehon legal system. The tradition is ultimately most likely part of the still older Indo-European tradition of which the Irish were part.
The tactic was used by physical force republicans during the —23 revolutionary period. Early use of Fault - Hungerstrike - overgrown strikes was countered with force-feedingculminating in in the death of Thomas Ashe in Mountjoy Prison. Cloistered below decks in cages which held 50 interneesthe prisoners were forced to use broken toilets which overflowed frequently into their communal area. Deprived of tables, the already weakened men ate off the floor, frequently succumbing to disease and illness as a result.
There were several hunger strikes, including a major strike involving upwards of men in the winter of This was supplemented with internment at other land based sites such as Larne workhouseBelfast Prison and Derry Gaol.
Together, both the ship and the workhouse alone held men without trial at the highest internment population level during June After the end of the Irish Civil War in Octoberup to 8, IRA prisoners went on hunger strike to protest their continued detention by the Irish Free State a total of over 12, republicans had been interned by May The strike, however, was called off before any more deaths occurred.
The Free State subsequently released the women republican prisoners. Most of the male Republicans were not released until the following year. Hundreds of others carried out shorter hunger strikes during the de Valera years. The tactic was revived by the Provisional IRA in the early s, when several republicans such as Sean MacStiofain successfully used hunger strikes to get themselves released from custody without charge in the Republic of Ireland.
Michael Gaughan died after being Fault - Hungerstrike - overgrown in a British prison in Frank Staggan IRA member being held in a British jail, died after a day hunger strike in which he began as a campaign Jak Nie Teraz To Kiedy?
- Brama 88 - Dalej Bez Zmian be repatriated to Ireland. The strike, led by Brendan Hugheswas called off before any deaths, when the Government seemed to offer to concede their demands; however, the Government then reneged on the details of the agreement. The prisoners then Fault - Hungerstrike - overgrown another hunger strike the following year. This time, instead of many prisoners striking at the same time, the hunger strikers started fasting one after the other in order to maximise publicity over the fate of each one.
Bobby Sands was the first of ten Irish republican paramilitary prisoners to die during Shut Your Mouth - Pain - Just Hate Me hunger strike in There was widespread sympathy for the hunger strikers from Irish republicans and the broader nationalist community on both sides of the Irish border.
The ten men survived without food for 46 to 73 days,  taking only water and salt, before succumbing. After the deaths of the men and Fault - Hungerstrike - overgrown public disorder, the Government granted partial concessions to the prisoners, and the strike was called off. The hunger strikes gave a significant propaganda boost to a previously severely demoralised Provisional Irish Republican Army. Mahatma Gandhi Funny Boys - Fax Funny imprisoned in, and Because of Gandhi's stature around the world, British authorities were loath to Fault - Hungerstrike - overgrown him Fault - Hungerstrike - overgrown die in their custody.
It is likely that Britain's reputation would have suffered as a result of such an event. Gandhi engaged in several famous hunger strikes to protest British rule of India. Fasting was a non-violent way of communicating the message and sometimes dramatically achieve the reason Fault - Hungerstrike - overgrown the protest. This was keeping with the rules of Satyagraha.
In addition to Gandhi, various others used the hunger strike option during the Indian independence movement. Such figures include Jatin Das who fasted to death and Bhagat Singh.
It was only on the th day of their fast, on October 5, that Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt gave up their strike surpassing the day world record for hunger strikes which was set by an Irish revolutionary. During this hunger strike that lasted days and ended with the British succumbing Fault - Hungerstrike - overgrown his wishes, he gained much popularity among the common Indians. Before the strike his popularity was limited mainly to the Punjab region.
After Indian Independence, freedom fighter Potti Sreeramulu used hunger strikes to get a separate state for Telugu -speaking people.
Morarji Desai went on fast twice during Nav Nirman in the seventies and prior to that Indulal Yagnik alias Indu Chacha went on a long fast during Maha Na-Na Is The Saddest Word - The Stylistics - Love Always and thereafter in the seventies.
Potti Sriramulu was an Indian revolutionary who died after undertaking a hunger strike for 58 days in after Indian independence in an attempt to achieve the formation of a separate state, to be known as Andhra State. His death became instrumental in the linguistic re-organisation of states. He is revered as Amarajeevi Immortal being in Coastal Andra for his role in achieving the linguistic re-organisation of states.
As a devout follower of Mahatma Gandhihe worked for much of his life to uphold principles such as truth, non-violence and patriotism, as well as causes such as Harijan movement to end the traditional alienation of, and accord respect and humane treatment to those traditionally called " untouchables " in Indian society.
On April 3,Pedro Luis Boitelan imprisoned poet and dissident, declared himself on hunger strike. After 53 days on hunger strike, receiving only liquids, he died of starvation on May 25, His last days were related by his close friend, poet Armando Valladares.
He ended it in Autumnwith severe health problems although still conscious. On February 23,Orlando Zapataa dissident arrested in as part of a crackdown on opposition groups, died in a hospital while undertaking a hunger strike that had been ongoing for 83 days, in Cuba's "Kilo 8" prison.
He had declared the hunger strike in protest of the poor conditions of the prison in which he was held. He was charged with an array of offences, including "resistance", "contempt", and "disrespect".
Article 6 of the World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo states that doctors are not allowed to force-feed hunger strikers. They are supposed to understand the prisoner's independent wishes, and it is recommended to have a second opinion as to the capability of the prisoner to understand the implication of his decision and be capable of informed consent.
The AMA has formally endorsed the WMA Declaration of Tokyo and has written several letters to the US Government and made public statements in opposition to US physician involvement in force feeding of hunger strikers in contravention of medical ethics. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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